Country Climate Pledges

Venezuela

December 15, 2015

In Venezuela’s INDC, the country sets a target to reduce its emissions by 20% from a business as usual pathway by the year 2030 dependant on receiving adequate international support.

Saint Kitts and Nevis

December 12, 2015

In the INDC of Saint Kitts and Nevis, the island nation offers to reduce its emissions by 22% from a business as usual pathway by 2025 and to 35% by the year 2030.

Tonga

December 4, 2015

In Tonga’s INDC, the country offers to increase use of renewables to generate electricity from the current 9% to 50% by 2020 and to a full 70% by 2030. Tonga also offers to double the size of its protected marine areas as part of its adaptation and resiliency strategy.

Brunei

December 1, 2015

In Brunei’s INDC, the country plans a 63% reduction in our total energy consumption by 2035 and further aspires to generate at least 10% of total power from new and renewable resources by 2035.

Angola

November 29, 2015

In Angola’s INDC, the country sets a target to reduce emissions by between 35-50% from business as usual by 2030, contingent on international support in an estimated amount of $15 billion and an additional $1bn for adaptation.

Palau

November 28, 2015

In Palau’s INDC, the small island nation offers to reduce the emissions coming from its energy sector by 22% from 2005 levels by 2025, putting an absolute target with an advanced time frame on the table.

Nigeria

November 28, 2015

In Nigeria’s INDC, the most populous African nation offers a pledge to reduce its emissions by 20% from business as usual levels in 2030, rising to a possible 45% contingent upon adequate international support.

Tuvalu

November 27, 2015

In Tuvalu’s INDC, the small island nation pledges to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in its electricity sector to virtually zero by the year 2025 (transitioning to generating 100% of its electricty from renewable energy) and offering a 60% reduction from 2010 levels across its entire energy sector also by the year 2025.

Jamaica

November 27, 2015

In Jamaica’s INDC, the island nation offers to reduce its emissions by 8% from business as usual levels by the year 2030 and aims to increase the percentage of energy it generates from renewable sources to 20%.

Malaysia

November 27, 2015

In Malaysia’s INDC, the country sets a target to reduce the intensity of its emissions by 35% between the years 2005 and 2030 or by up to 45% provided it receives adequate international support.

Niue

November 25, 2015

In Niue’s INDC, the small island nation sets a target to transition to 80% renewable energy use by the year 2025, provided it receives adequate international support.

Kuwait

November 24, 2015

Waiting for English translation of the Arabic submission…

Bahrain

November 24, 2015

In Bahrain’s INDC, the kingdom does not set a specific emissions reduction target, instead focusing on improving energy efficiency, carbon capture and storage, and renewable energy development. 

Micronesia

November 24, 2015

In Micronesia’s INDC, the island nation commits to unconditionally reduce emissions 28% from 2000 levels by 2050. This could increase to 35% with financial, technical, and capacity building support from the international community. Micronesia does not intend to use international market mechanism to realize its goal. 

Yemen

November 23, 2015

In Yemen’s INDC, the country pledges to cut emissions 1% from business usual levels by 2030, rising to 14% with international support. The country will target its energy, agriculture, and waste sectors to acheive emissions reductions. 

Cuba

November 23, 2015

In Cuba’s INDC, the country does not set a concrete emissions reduction target, instead focusing on developing renewable energy resources. Cuba hopes to install over 2000 MW of renewable generation capacity, but is seeking substantial international financial support to meet this goal. 

South Sudan

November 23, 2015

In South Sudan’s INDC, the country states that it expects an increase in GHG emissions due to the goal of becoming a newly-industrialized, middle income country by 2040. However, South Sudan intends to develop renewable energy wherever possible, including hydroelectric, geothermal, wind, and solar. South Sudan will undertake a national GHG inventory by 2016 to better understand and quantify potential mitigation and emissions reduction efforts. The country also plans to declare at least 20% of its natural forests as reserves and to pioneer an ambitious afforestation and reforestation program.  

Iran

November 21, 2015

In Iran’s INDC, the country states that it sees an increase in its GHG emissions in the near future to be inevitable in service of its main goals of increased economic growth and development. However, Iran does set an unconditional target to reduce its emissions by 4% from business as usual levels by 2030, would could increase to a further 8% cut in GHG emissions (that is up to 12% cuts in total) if Iran receives adequate international tecnological and financial support. Iran states it would need annual support in the range of 17.5 to 52.5 billion dollars to meet these targets.

Qatar

November 20, 2015

In Qatar’s INDC, the country does not set a specific emissions reduction target but instead states Qatar’s intention to diversify its economy, reduce its reliance on fossil fuels and step up its use of solar energy provided there is adequate tehcnological transfer and financial support.

Cook Islands

November 20, 2015

In the Cook Islands’ INDC, the small island nation sets out plans to cut its emissions 81% from 2006 levels by the year 2030, including by cutting 38% of emissions in the power sector. If the country receives adequate support from developed countries it will also aim to generate 100% of its electricity from renewable sources by 2030.

Saint Lucia

November 18, 2015

In Saint Lucia’s INDC, the small island nation sets a target to reduce its emissions by 16% from business as usual levels by 2023 and 23% from business as usual levels by 2030, conditional upon international support. The INDCalso includes a section on adaptation.

Saint Vincent and Grenadines

November 18, 2015

In Saint Vincent and Grenadines’ INDC, the small island nation sets an unconditional target to reduce its emissions by 22% from business as usual levels by the year 2025. The island nation also outlines the vulnerabilities it faces from climate change impacts and sets out several adaptation actions it intends to take to lessen its vulnerability.

Bahamas

November 18, 2015

In the Bahamas’ INDC, the small island nation sets a target to reduce emissions by 30% from business as usual levels by 2030 provided it receive an estimated $900 million in support. The Bahamas also lays out several actions it will take to improve its resiliency to climate impacts.

Somalia

November 17, 2015

In Somalia’s INDC, the country suggests three areas of climate action policy that it believes will cost $100 million: a commitment to focus on building climate adaptation capacity; plans to revitalize hydroelectric projects and improve water circulation in the water scarce country; and plans to decrease reliance on coal and charcoal use.

Nauru

November 17, 2015

In Nauru’s INDC, the small island nation pledges to replace a “substantial” (but unspecified) portion of its diesel energy usage with renewable solar power. Nauru predicts this transition will cost approximately $50 million.

El Salvador

November 17, 2015

In El Salvador’s INDC, the country offers to restore a million hectares of degraded land (primarily forest land) by the year 2030 and to develop a clean power plan in one year (by December 2016). However, El Salvador did not put any specific emissions reduction pledge on the table in its INDC.

Iraq

November 12, 2015

Waiting for English translation of the Arabic submission…

Pakistan

November 12, 2015

In Pakistan’s INDC, the country submitted a two page broad statement of support for climate action but did not lay out any specific targets. Pakistan said the specifics of its climate policies would be forthcoming, but specificed that “Pakistan is committed to reduce its emissions after reaching peak levels to the extent possible subject to affordability, provision of international climate finance, transfer of technology and capacity building.  As such Pakistan will only be able to make specific commitments once reliable data on our peak emission levels is available.”

Egypt

November 11, 2015

In Egypt’s INDC, the country pledges to phase out energy subsidies within 3-5 years and possibly institute a national carbon market. The INDC does not include a measurement for renewables, but states that energy efficiency will be the cornerstone of mitigation efforts. Egypt requests $73 billion in international aid for both the adaptation and mitigation plans. 

Sudan

November 10, 2015

In Sudan’s INDC, the country pledges to increase renewable energy to 20% of the electricity mix by 2030, save 6500 GWh through energy efficiency and increase forest coverage to 25% of the Sudan by 2030, among other actions. The INDC contains a substantial section on the adaptation challenges facing the country, as well as some adaptation action plans, for which Sudan requests $12.88 billion in international support. 

Saudi Arabia

November 10, 2015

In Saudi Arabia’s INDC, the country pledged to diversify its economy away from fossil fuels and towards renewable energy, avoiding up to 130 million tons of carbon dioxide equivalent annually by 2030. Saudi Arabia states its intention to use oil export revenues to invest in renewables, energy efficiency, and other non-fossil sectors, although no specific target for renewable energy capacity is named. The country will also build the world’s largest carbon capture and storage plant. 

Fiji

November 5, 2015

In Fiji’s INDC, the country pledges to reduce emissions by 30% from a business-as-usual scenario by 2030 by moving towards 100% renewable energy by that year, up from 60% in 2013. Of the mitigation pledge, 20% is dependent on the provision of $500 million in international aid. 

Suriname

October 28, 2015

In Suriname’s INDC, the country offers to tackle climate change through a combination of limiting deforestation, increasing the use of biofuels and hydropower as sources of energy. Suriname estimates the the amount of international support needed to acheive the mitigation and adaptation measures outlined in its INDC will total $3.5 billion over the next decade.

Sri Lanka

October 22, 2015

In Sri Lanka’s INDC, the country offers an unconditional 7% emissions reduction target from 2030 business as usual levels that could increase to 23% conditional upon international support. Sri Lanka estimates that the costs of adaptation will amount to $420 million over the next decade. Includes a section on loss and damage.

United Arab Emirates (UAE)

October 22, 2015

In the UAE’s INDC, the country offers to increase the share of renewables in its energy mix to 24% by 2021 up from 0.2% in 2014. In so doing the UAE will begin to diversify its economic base from fossil fuel reliance and will implement a set of adaptation actions that will have mitigation benefits.

Oman

October 19, 2015

In Oman’s INDC, the country offers an unconditional 2% emissions reduction from business as usual levels to be acheived through an increase in renewable energy (unspecified) and a decrease in gas flaring. Oman’s INDC is also noteworthy for being the first nation from the Arabian peninsula to submit a climate action plan to the UN soon followed by the United Arab Emirates.

Antigua and Barbuda

October 19, 2015

In Antigua and Barbuda’s INDC, the island nation does not set an emissions reduction goal but does outline a mix of unconditional and conditional actions to increase the island’s adaptive capacity to climate impacts (such as improving the climate resiliency of all buildings by 2030) and increasing the renewable energy generating capacity of the country to 50 MW.

Uganda

October 16, 2015

In Uganda’s INDC, the country sets a target of reducing emissions by 22% from business as usual levels by 2030 conditional upon international support. Uganda will reach this goal by taking a series of mitigation measures in its forestry, wetlands, and energy sectors. Uganda also lists a series of actions it plans to take to bolster its adaptive capacity to climate change.

Bolivia

October 12, 2015

In Bolivia’s INDC, the country sets a goal of ending illegal deforestation by 2020 and promises to increase the share of renewables in its energy mix from its current 39% to 79% by 2030, or even as high as 81% if the country receives international support.

Bosnia and Herzegovina

October 8, 2015

In Bosnia and Herzegovina’s INDC, the country offers an unconditional 2% emissions reduction from business as usual levels by 2030 (equivalent to a 3% reduction on 1990 levles). Bosnia and Herzegovina could increase its emissions reduction target to approximately 25% cuts from business as usual levels on condition that it receives adequate international support.

Malawi

October 8, 2015

In Malawi’s INDC, the country states an official goal of its climate policy “to promote climate change adaptation and mitigation for sustainable livelihoods through measures that increase levels of knowledge and understanding and improve human well-being and social equity, while pursuing economic development that significantly reduces environmental risks and ecological scarcities.” However, Malawi does not include any firm targets delineated as a precentage reduction of emissions or volume of carbon pollution to be avoided. Malawi’s INDC includes a section on adaptation.

Afghanistan

October 6, 2015

In Afghanistan’s INDC, the country offers a 13.6% emissions reduction from business as usual levels by 2030 contingent upon receiving international support in the estimated amount of $17.4 billion. Afghanistan’s INDCalso includes a section on adaptation and reducing vulnerability to climate impacts.

Paraguay

October 1, 2015

In Paraguay’s INDC, the country offers a 20% emissions reduction from business as usual by 2030, half of the offer (10% emissions reductions) is conditional, and the other half would be conditional upon international support. Commits to a review of its offer every five years.

Chad

October 1, 2015

In Chad’s INDC, the country offers an 18.2% unconditional emissions reduction from 2010 levels by 2030 (or an estimated 41,700 metrict tons of C02 equivalent). Chad will increase its offer to 71% of emissions from 2010 levels by 2030 (or 162,000 metric tons of CO2 equivalent) conditional upon international support. 

Algeria

October 1, 2015

In Algeria’s INDC, the country offers an unconditional 7% emissions reduction from business as usual levels by 2030, which could increase to 22% emissions redutions with international support.

Belize

October 1, 2015

In Belize’s INDC, the country aims to reduce its carbon dioxide emissions by 62% from business as usual levels and increase its share of renewable energy (RE) in its electricity mix by 85% by the year 2027. 

Argentina

October 1, 2015

In Argentina’s INDC, the country sets a target to cut emissions 15% below business as usual by 2030 emissions, which could increase to 30% emissions reductions with international support.

Mozambique

October 1, 2015

In Mozambique’s INDC, the country offers to cut emissions by 76.5 million tonnes of CO2-equivalent between 2020-30. However, Mozambique caveats its INDC explaining that figures it has targeted are surrounded by a good deal of uncertainty and will need to be honed and reevaluated by early 2018 if not before.

Ecuador

October 1, 2015

In Ecuador’s INDC, the country offers to cut the emissions from its energy sector by 20.4-25% below business as usual by 2030. If Ecuador receives international support its offer could increase to between 37.5-45.8%.

India

October 1, 2015

In its official INDC, India is committing to:

  • Reining in the emission intensity of per unit GDP by 33 to 35% below 2005 levels by 2030.
  • Increasing non-fossil fuels in its electrical mix to 40% installed capacity by 2030 with the help of transfer of technology and low cost international finance including from the Green Climate Fund (GCF).
  • Adding 175GW of new renewable energy generation by 2022 (of which 100GW will be solar).
  • Adding forest and tree cover to create a carbon sink for 2.5 to 3 billion tons of CO2 by 2030.

India intends to cover the $2.5 trillion cost of its pledge with both domestic and international funds. Includes information on adaptation.

Botswana

October 1, 2015

In Botswana’s INDC, the country offers to reduce emissions 15% by 2030, compared to 2010 levels. Botswana will finance its climate action plan by both domestic and international resources. Includes section on adaptation.

Sierra Leone

October 1, 2015

In Sierra Leone’s INDC, the country offers to keep emissions “relatively low” (close to 7.58MtCO2e) by 2035, or achieve neutrality by 2050, conditional upon international support. Also presents an intensity based reduction target of 25% and 35%, to be achieved in 2020-2030 and 2030-2050 respectively, compared to 1990 levels. Includes sections on adaptation and loss and damage.  

Honduras

October 1, 2015

In Honduras’s INDC, the country offers a 15% reduction in emissions by 2030, compared to business-as-usual levels, conditional upon international support. Honduras also pledges an afforestation target, aiming to restore a million hectares of forest by 2030. Includes a section on adaptation.

Guinea 

October 1, 2015

In Guinea’s INDC, the country offers a conditional 13% reduction on emissions by 2030, compared to 1994 levels, excluding land use and forestry. Includes a section on adaptation. 

Thailand

October 1, 2015

In Thailand’s INDC, the country offers an unconditional 20% reduction in emissions by 2030, compared to business-as-usual levels. This could increase to 25%, conditional upon the provision of international support. Includes a section on adaptation. 

Lao PDR

October 1, 2015

In Lao PDR’s INDC, the country puts forward a set of conditional mitigation activities but no absolute emissions reduction target. Includes a section on adaptation. 

Philippines

October 1, 2015

In Philippines’ INDC, the country offers a reduction in emissions of about 70% by 2030, relative to a business-as-usual scenario, contingent upon the receipt of international support. Includes sections on adaptation and loss and damage.

Samoa

October 1, 2015

In  Samoa’s INDC, the country pledges to generate 100% of its electricity from renewable energy by 2025. Accordingto Carbon Brief this offer is based on extending its goal of 100% renewables by 2017, where demand is expected to increase. Electricity was estimated to account for ~13% of total emissions in 2014. International support will be required. Includes a section on adaptation.

Suriname

September 30, 2015

In Suriname’s INDC, according to Carbon Brief the country will introduce and distribute renewable energy to coastal and interior villages that rely on fossil fuels. Up-front costs will require international support but will reduce annual energy costs. To conserve forest resources and, by 2020, to fully protect mangroves. Includes a section on adaptation. 

Togo 

September 30, 2015

In Togo’s INDC, the country offers an unconditional reduction of 11.14% by 2030, compared to 2010 levels, which could rise as high as 31.14% on the condition of international support. Includes a section on adaptation.

Papua New Guinea

September 30, 2015

In Papua New Guinea’s INDC, the country sets an ambitious goal to shift to 100% renewable energy by 2030, conditional on receiving international support. PNG will also aim to reduce deforestation the country’s largest source of emissions. Includes section on adaptation.

Liberia

September 30, 2015

In Liberia’s INDC, the country offers to redue emissions 15% below a business-as-usual levels by 2030, and sets a long-term goal of acheiving carbon neutrality by 2050. The INDC includes a section on adaptation and is offered conditionally upon the provision of international support.

Tajikistan

September 30, 2015

In Tajikistan’s INDC, the country pledges to not exceed 80-90% of 1990 levels by 2030 as an unconditional target, accompanied by a conditional target to not exceed 65-75% of 1990 levels subject to international funding.

Lesotho

September 30, 2015

In  Lesotho’s INDC, the country offers an unconditional 10% reduction in emissions compared to a business-as-usual levles by 2030, and a conditional reduction of 35% by 2030, dependent on international support. Includes a section on adaptation.

San Marino 

September 30, 2015

In San Marino’s INDC, the country will reduce emissions 20% by 2030, compared to 2005 levels without international support but likely partially through the use of market mechanisms if necessary.

Rwanda

September 30, 2015

In Rwanda’s INDC, the country will curb its emissions from the business as usual path by 2030, although the INDCdoes not specify by what percentage and the deviation is conditional on international support. Rwanda, however, has said that what they have offered by October 1st is a preliminary pledge that will be elaborated, specified and re-submitted before Paris. Includes a section on adaptation.

Malawi

September 30, 2015

In Malawi’s INDC, the country offers a set of mitigation and adaptation actions, both conditional and unconditional, that would reduce emissions per capita down to 0.7-0.8 tCO2e by 2030, compared to a business-as-usual scenario of 1.5 tCO2 per capita (a reduction of approximately 47%).

Israel 

September 30, 2015

In Israel’s INDC, the country offers an unconditional target to reduce per capita emissions to 26% below 2005 levels by 2030, and sets an interim target for 2025. According to Carbon Brief’s analysis Israel’s population is expected to grow at an annual rate of 1.8% per year. Israel is currently drafting its National Adaptation Plan. 

Guatemala 

September 30, 2015

In Guatemala’s INDC, the country offers an unconditional 11.2% emissions cut in 2030, relative to business as usual projections, or a conditional 22.6% reduction. Notes that climate-related loss and damage over the past 16 years totals $3.5bn. Includes a section on adaptation.

Sao Tome and Principe

September 30, 2015

In Sao Tome and Principe’s INDC, the country offers a set of actions that it will take to reduce emissions below business as usual levels, conditional upon international support, however, the country does not specify a percentage for its reductions. Also requires support for adaptation.

Turkmenistan

September 30, 2015

In Turkmenistan’s INDC, the country pledges to achieve zero growth in emissions, or even reduce emissions, by 2030 contingent upon international support. Aims to achieve this “primarily but not exclusively” through domestic resources. Includes a section on adaptation. 

Solomon Islands 

September 30, 2015

In Solomon Islands’ INDC, the country sets an unconditional reduction in emissions of 12% by 2025 and 30% by 2030, compared to business-as-usual levels, or a conditional reduction of 27% by 2025 and 45% by 2030, dependent on international support. With appropriate assistance, could further reduce emissions by more than 50% by 2025. Includes a section on adaptation. 

Guinea Bissau

September 30, 2015

In Guinea Bissau’s INDC, the country will turn itself into a net sink, further emissions cuts are conditional on support. Aims to boost renewables’ share of the energy mix to 80% by 2030 and develop a national reforestation programme by 2025. Section on adaptation aims to increase protected area coverage from 15 to 26%.  

Bhutan 

September 30, 2015

In Bhutan’s INDC, the country which has already acheived carbon neturality will remain carbon neutral, so that emissions of greenhouse gases do no exceed carbon sequestration by forests. Bhutan also commits to maintaining current levels of forest cover. Includes a selection of low-emissions policies. Includes a section on adaptation. Successful implementation will depend on level of support received. 

Costa Rica 

September 30, 2015

In Costa Rica’s INDC, the country reconfirms its aspiration to become carbon neutral by 2021. In terms of total greenhouse gas emissions, pledges to reduce emissions by 44% by 2030 compared to business-as-usual levels, equivalent to a 25% reduction compared to 2012 levels. These goals will require international support to implement. Includes a section on adaptation. 

Zimbabwe

September 30, 2015

In Zimbabwe’s INDC, the country offers a 33% reduction in per capita emissions in 2030, compared to business as usual. This would see per capita emissions double compared to present levels, rather than tripling under business as usual. The pledge would be conditional on international support. Includes a section on adaptation.  

Cambodia 

September 30, 2015

In Cambodia’s INDC, the country offers a reduction of 27% in emissions below a business-as-usual scenario by 2030, with an additional target to increase forest cover to 60% of national land area by 2030. This is conditional upon international support. Includes a section on adaptation.

Turkey

September 30, 2015

In Turkey’s INDC, the country offers a 21% reduction in emissions by 2030, compared to a business-as-usual scenario and requests financial support, including from the Green Climate Fund.

Burundi 

September 30, 2015

In Burundi’s INDC, the country offers a 20% reduction in emissions by 2030 compared to a business-as-usual scenario, on the condition of international support. Of this, 3% will be achieved unconditionally. Includes interim targets for 2020 and 2025. Prioritizes its section on adaptation ahead of its section on mitigation.

Haiti 

September 30, 2015

In Haiti’s INDC, the country offers a 26% reduction in emissions by 2030, relative to business-as-usual levels. Of this, 5% will be achieved unconditionally, while the remainder is subject to international support. Includes section on adaptation.

Lebanon

September 30, 2015

In Lebanon’s INDC, the country offers an unconditional 15% emissions cut in 2030, compared to business as usual, or a conditional 30% reduction. Aims for 15% of power and heat energy to come from renewable in 2030, or 20% with international support. Includes a section on adaptation. 

Ukraine

September 30, 2015

In Ukraine’s INDC, the country will limit its emissions to 60% of 1990 levels in 2030. In 2012, emissions were 43% of 1990 levels. Pledge will be revised after the country’s “territorial integrity” is restored.

Congo

September 29, 2015

In Congo’s INDC, the country will reduce emissions by at least 48% by 2025 and 55% by 2035, compared to a business-as-usual scenario, conditional upon international support. Includes a section on adaptation.

Namibia 

September 29, 2015

In Namibia’s INDC, the country offers an unconditional 8.9% emissions cut in 2030, compared to business as usual, or an 89% cut with international support. Most of the reduction would be achieved by reducing projected deforestation rates by 75%. Aims to increase the share of renewables in its electricity mix from 33 to 70%. Total estimated cost of $33bn. Includes a section on adaptation.

Zambia 

September 29, 2015

In Zambia’s INDC, the country offers an unconditional 25% emissions cut in 2030, compared to business as usual, equivalent to holding emissions steady. A higher 47% reduction against business as usual emissions is conditional on international support. Includes a section on adaptation.

Dominica

September 29, 2015

In Dominica’s INDC, the country offers an 18% emissions cut by 2020, compared to 2014 levels, with cuts of 39% by 2025 and 45% by 2030 against the same baseline. Includes a section on climate risks and adaptation.

Mali 

September 29, 2015

In Mali’s INDC, the country commits to reducing emissions by 29% from the agricultural sector, 31% for energy and 21% for forests and land use, each by 2030 and in comparison to a business-as-usual scenario. Taken all together this comes out to an average reduction of 27% from BAU levels. This is conditional upon international support, although around 40% of this can be met unconditionally. Includes a section on adaptation, though only for the period 2015-2020.

Vanuatu

September 29, 2015

In Vanuatu’s INDC, the country will transition to 65% renewable energy use by 2020 and nearly 100% renewable electricity by 2030. The move to renewable energy will help Vanuatu reduce its energy emissions by 30% in 2030 compared to business as usual. The target is conditional on at least $180m in external funding. Energy efficiency, forestry mitigation and other possible efforts are listed. Includes a section on adaptation.

Chile 

September 29, 2015

In Chile’s INDC, the country offers an unconditional 30% reduction in emissions per unit of GDP by 2030, compared to 2007 levels, or a 35-45% reduction conditional on international support. The intensity target covers all sectors except land use and forestry. Includes separate targets on sustainable forest management and reforestation. Includes a section on adaptation.

Uruguay 

September 29, 2015

In Uruguay’s INDC, the country expects to become a net CO2 sink by 2030. An unconditional 25% cut in emissions per unit of GDP by 2030, compared to 1990 levels, or a 40% cut conditional on international support. Other sectoral targets include scaling up emissions removals through land and forestry, while reducing the emissions intensity of power production, beef and waste. Includes a section on adaptation. 

Barbados

September 29, 2015

In Barbados’s INDC, the country offers a 44% economy-wide emissions cut in 2030, compared to business as usual. Its interim goal of 37% in 2025 is equivalent to a 21% cut relative to 2008 levels. Includes section on adaptation. Implementation requires financial support.

Azerbaijan

September 29, 2015

In Azerbaijan’s INDC, the country offers a 35% emissions cut by 2030, compared to 1990 levels. Includes all sectors of the economy. But, according to Carbon Brief, Azerbaijan’s emissions are currently around 40% below 1990 levels, so the country’s most recent pledge actually amounts to a backsliding of its ambition.

Tanzania 

September 29, 2015

In Tanzania’s INDC, the country targets a 10-20% cut in emissions by 2030, compared to business as usual. The level of ambition depends on how much international support is available. Includes a section on adaptation.

Swaziland 

September 29, 2015

In Swaziland’s INDC, the country will try to double the renewable share of its energy mix by 2030, compared to 2010 levels. Also pledges to develop a national emissions inventory, baseline and business as usual projections, in order to draw up a national mitigation goal by 2020. Aims to develop a national adaptation plan by 2020.

Vietnam 

September 29, 2015

In Vietnam’s INDC, the country offers an 8% reduction in emissions by 2030, compared to a business-as-usual scenario. This could be increased to 25% conditional upon international support. Also pledges to increase forest cover to 45%. Includes a section on adaptation. 

Kyrgyzstan  

September 29, 2015

In Kyrgyzstan’s INDC, the country will reduce emissions by between 11.49% and 13.75% below business-as-usual levels by 2030, with an additional conditional target of between 29% and 30.89% by 2030. Also gives a long-term target of a 12.67% to 15.69% reduction below BAU levels by 2050, or a 35.06% to 36.75% reduction on the condition of international support. Contains a section on adaptation.

Cabo Verde

September 29, 2015

In Cabo Verde’s INDC, the country lists a set of actions designed to reduce emissions, including increasing renewable energy grid penetration, increasing energy efficiency and reforestation programmes. Some actions are conditional on international support, others are unconditional. Includes section on adaptation.

Niger

September 29, 2015

In Niger’s INDC, the country sets an unconditional 3.5% reduction in emissions by 2030, compared to a business-as-usual scenario, or a 34.6% reduction by 2030 on the condition of international support. Contains a section on adaptation.

Armenia 

September 29, 2015

In Armenia’s INDC, the country will aim to limit its emissions to an aggregate 633 million tonnes of CO2 equivalent for the period 2015-2050. This works out at per capita emissions of 5.4 tons (compared to 2.14 tons in 2010). This is subject to international support. Includes a section on adaptation.

Cameroon 

September 28, 2015

In Cameroon’s INDC, the country offers a 32% reduction in emissions by 2035 compared to business-as-usual levels, conditional upon international support. Includes a section on adaptation.

Guyana

September 28, 2015

In Guyana’s INDC, the country offers to cut up to 52 million tonnes of CO2 equivalent of mitigation and a 20% share of total energy from renewables by 2025, conditional on provision of adequate resources. Unconditional elements are not associated with a quantified outcomes. The pledge covers CO2 from forestry and energy. Conditional elements and adaptation needs will cost an estimated $4.495bn.

Burkina Faso

September 28, 2015

In Burkina Faso’s INDC, the country sets an unconditional pledge to reduce emissions by 6.6% below business-as-usual levels by 2030, with a further 11.6% reduction conditional upon international support. Includes interim pledges for 2020 and 2025. Includes a section on adaptation, where actions proposed would reduce emissions by a further 36.95%, taking the total reductions up to a potential 55.15% below business-as-usual levels.

Peru 

September 28, 2015

In Peru’s INDC, the country offers an unconditional 20% reduction in emissions by 2030, compared to business as usual. A 30% reduction is offered conditional on international funding. This would equate to a 22% increase compared to 2010 emissions. Includes a section on adaptation. The INDC also sets out Peru’s position on theParis agreement.

Myanmar 

September 28, 2015

In Myanmar’s INDC, the country puts forward a set of sectoral goals including to increase hydropower capacity to 9.4 gigawatts by 2030, to achieve rural electrification based on at least 30% renewable sources and to increase the forested area to 30% by 2030.  Efforts to calculate and present a reliable estimate of current emissions are part of the pledge. Includes a section on adaptation. 

Mauritius

September 28, 2015

In Mauritius’s INDC, the country offers a 30% emissions cut by 2030, compared to business as usual emissions of 7 million tonnes of CO2 equivalent. The target, equivalent to a 4% cut on 2014 emissions, is conditional on international support. Covers all major sectors of the economy. Includes a section on adaptation.

Gambia 

September 28, 2015

In Gambia’s INDC, the country offers a 44% emissions cut by 2025, compared to business as usual projections, and a 45% cut by 2030. The targets exclude land use and forestry. Two of 12 sectoral mitigation schemes, with associated emissions reduction targets, are unconditional. The rest are conditional on international financial support and technology transfer. Includes a section on adaptation.

Maldives

September 28, 2015

In the Maldives’ INDC, the country offers an unconditional 10% reduction in energy sector emissions by 2030, compared to business as usual, or a 24% reduction conditional on international support. Business as usual 2030 emissions are projected to be triple those in 2010. Contains a section on adaptation.

Kazakhstan

September 28, 2015

In Kazakhstan’s INDC, the country offers an unconditional 15% reduction in economy-wide emissions by 2030, compared to 1990 levels or a 25% reduction conditional on international support. According to Carbon Brief, the country’s emissions are currently around 25% below 1990 levels. 

Brazil 

September 28, 2015

In Brazil’s INDC, the country offers the following actions:

  • To cut total emission by 37% (based 2005) by 2025;

  • To step up those reductions of total emission to 42% (based 2005) by 2030;

  • To set a long-term goal for decarbonisation by 2100.

Additionally, Dilma announced that Brazil will aim to scale up renewables to be 45% of total energy sources by 2030; in the power sector Brazil will try and scale up renewables to comprise 89% of energy sources by 2030; in 2030 Brazil will get 66% of its power from hydro energy (currently it gets around 68% of its power from hydro); Brazil will also scale up solar, wind and biomass (non-hydro renewables) to comprise 23% of its generative capacity by 2030; the country has also committed to improving its energy efficiency by 10% by 2030. Brazil also set targets for its forestry and land sector, including: ​ending illegal deforestation by 2030; restoring 12 million hectares of forest by 2030; and restoring 5 million hectares of degraded pastures by 2030.

Central African Republic 

September 28, 2015

In the Central African Republic’s INDC, the country offers a 5% cut in emissions by 2030, compared to business as usual levels, and CAR also gives a mid-century target, 25% cut by 2050. The 2030 target will cost $2.2bn to implement and is conditional on 90% international funding. Includes detailed breakdowns of spending priorities for mitigation and adaptation.

Kiribati

September 26, 2015

In Kiribati’s INDC, the country offers a conditional pledge to reduce emissions by 13.7% by 2025 and 12.8% by 2030 reduction, compared to business as usual levels. Includes fossil fuels and marine sequestration. If Kiribati receives international support the country will increase its offer to 61.8% cuts in emissions by 2030 compared to business as usual.

Senegal 

September 26, 2015

In Senegal’s INDC, the country offers an unconditional reduction in emissions of 5% by 2030, compared to business-as-usual levels, with interim targets of 3% by 2020 and 5% by 2025. The country will increase its offer to 7% by 2020, 15% by 2025 and 21% by 2030 respectively compared to business-as-usual levels contingent upon international financial support. Contains a section on adaptation. 

South Africa

September 25, 2015

In South Africa’s INDC, the country commits to reaching a peak, plateau and starting to decline (“PPD”) its emissions within the next decade. South Africa aims to peak its emissions between 2020 and 2025, keep them at a plateau for roughly a decade and then will reduce emissions from its maximum. According to Carbon Brief, WRI and others emissions during 2025-2030 will be in the range 398-614 million tonnes of CO2 equivalent, including emissions from land use and all other sectors of the economy. Emissions were 461MtCO2e in 2000. The INDCincludes sections on adaptation and support needs. 

Belarus

September 25, 2015

In  Belarus’s INDC, the country commits to keep greenhouse gases in 2030 at 28% below 1990 levels, excluding land use and forestry. According to Carbon Brief, this would equate to a roughly 5% rise compared to current emissions. Includes a section on adaptation.

Georgia 

September 25, 2015

In Georgia’s INDC, the country offers a 15% reduction in greenhouse gases, excluding land use and forestry, below business as usual levels by the year 2030. This offer roughly equates to a 34% reduction in emission intensity per unit of GDP from 2013 to 2030. The 15% will be increased to 25% on the condition of access to international support. Includes a section on adaptation. 

Seychelles 

September 25, 2015

In Seychelles’ INDC, the country offers a 29% reduction in greenhouse gases by 2030, compared to 2010-12 levels, which is conditional on international climate finance. Includes a section on adaptation. 

Moldova

September 25, 2015

In Moldova’s INDC, the country offers a 64-67% emissions cut by 2030, compared to 1990 levels, with best efforts to reach 67%. According to Carbon Brief this goal holds emissions virtually steady as in 2013 emissions in the country were at 64% below 1990 levels. However, the INDC offers a higher 78% emissions cut by 2030, conditional on low-cost financial resources as part of a global deal. Includes land use and forestry emissions.

Bangladesh

September 25, 2015

In Bangladesh’s INDC, the country offers an unconditional 5% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by 2030, compared to business-as-usual levels, in the power, transport and industry sectors. To be accompanied by a further 15% reduction, conditional upon international support. These three sectors will represent 69% of total emissions in 2030. Includes section on adaptation. .

Eritrea

September 24, 2015

In its INDC, Eritrea offers an unconditional reduction of its emissions from BAU levels by 2030 of 39.2% and a conditional reduction as high as 80.6% if the country receives adequate finance and international support. Eritrea also stresses the country’s vulnerability to changing rainfall patterns driven by climate change that are likely to increase the frequency and severity of drought conditions that can harm crops and aggravate food insecurity in the region.

Mongolia

September 24, 2015

In its INDC, Mongolia offers to reduce emissions (not including through changes in land use and forestry practices) by 14% from BAU levels by 2030. 

Indonesia

September 24, 2015

In its official INDC, Indonesia offers an unconditional 29% reduction in emissions from BAU levels by 2030 that could rise to rise as high as 41% emissions cuts from BAU levels if given adequate finance and support. Indonesia will place a premium on limiting deforestation as well as peat and forest fires. The country will also aim to increase the share of renewables in its energy mix to 23% by 2025. The country emphasizes its acute vulnerability to the impacts of hydrological climate change-driven extreme weather like sea level rise and intensified coastal storms in its INDC in a sizable section devoted to climate adaptation.

Madagascar

September 24, 2015

In its INDC, Madagascar offers to reduce emissions by 14% from business as usual levels by 2030 contingent upon international support. Madagascar also intends to remove approximately 32% of the atmospheric carbon in its emissions through use of carbon sinks.

Albania

September 24, 2015

In its INDC, Albania offers to reduce emissions by 11.5% from business as usual by 2030.

Ghana

Septembrer 23, 2015

In its INDC, Ghana offers to reduce its emissions by 15% from the business as usual levels that would hold in 2030 and increase its use of renewables by 10% between 2020 and 2030. Ghana’s INDC also includes several adaptation provisions including: agriculture and urban infrastructure climate resiliency planning, improved forestry management, and managing and monitoring climate change-induced health risks among others.

Mauritania 

September 23, 2015

In its INDC, Mauritania offers to reduce its emissions by 23% or approximately 4.2 million tons of CO2 equivalent (Mt CO2e) by 2030. 12% of this offer is unconditional while 88% of the offer will be conditional upon international support.

Montenegro

September 23, 2015

In its INDC, Montenegro offers to reduce its emissions 30% from 1990 levels by 2030 following a formation for its climate offer to the UN that aligns with the offers put on the table by Russia and several other former Soviet nations in Eastern Europe.

Equatorial Guinea

September 21, 2015

In its INDC, Equatorial Guinea offers to reduce its emissions 20% from 2010 levles by 2030 – Equatorial Guinea joins a select number of other developing countries that have chosen to redue emissions from levels that existed in a past base year as opposed calibrating the reduction from projected levels under a business as usual track in a future year.

Grenada

September 18, 2015

In its INDC, Grenada offers a 30% reduction in its greenhouse gas emissions from 2010 levels by 2025. Grenada also set an indicative target of 40% reductions by 2030. The country estimates that $161.5 million of international and bilaterally-raised money will be needed to acheive these targets. As a small island nation Grenada emphasizes the climate change risks it faces and the need for strong adaptation planning. The INDCoutlines intentions to mainstream adaptation into planning processes and connect local programs to national policies.

Comoros

September 17, 2015

As a small island nation Comoros sets an ambitious target in its INDC of cutting greenhouse gases by 84% from 2030 business as usual levels. Comoros also places a strong focus on adaptation in its INDC, both in the short-term and through the articulation of a long-term vision on adaptation.  Both the mitigation and adaptation targets of Comoros are conditional upon adequate financing.

Tunisia

September 16, 2015

In its INDC, Tunisia sets a carbon intensity target as opposed to an absolute reduction target. The country offers to reduce its carbon intensity by up to 41% of which 13% cuts are unconditional. Beyond 13% the remainder of the intended target will be contingent upon receipt of an estimated $20 billion for both the planned mitigation and adaptation actions laid out in the INDC. 

Cote D’Ivoire / Ivory Coast

September 11, 2015

Cote D’Ivoire has submitted its INDC, offering an unconditional 28% reduction in emissions from BAU levels by 2030 that could rise to rise as high as 36% emissions cuts from BAU levels if given adequate finance and support.

Jordan

September 10, 2015

Jordan has submitted its INDC, offering an unconditional pledge of 1.5% cuts in emissions from BAU levels by 2030 that the country will increase to 15% emissions cuts from BAU level if given adequate finance and support. Jordan estimates this upper conditional threshold of 15% can be met with the assistance of $5 billion in international support.

Colombia

September 7, 2015

Colombia has submitted its INDC, offering an unconditional 20% reduction in emissions from BAU levels by 2030 that could rise as high as 30% cuts from the BAU levels that would hold in 2030 if Colombia receives adequateclimate finance and technological support to reach this upper threshold. Colombia has signaled that it is also willing to set a provisional emissions reduction target for the year 2025 contigent upon a strong outcome from the Paris climate talks in December. Colombia’s INDC also contained numerous provisions for increasing adaptation planning and implementation within its borders, including mainstreaming adaptation considerations into planning in six priority sectors, increasing adaptation plans to cover 100% of Colombia’s territory, and applying rigorous monitoring and evaluation practices to the implementation of adaptation plans.

Algeria

September 4, 2015

Algeria has submitted its INDC, offering an unconditional 7% reduction in emissions from BAU levels that could rise as high as 22% cuts from the BAU levels that would hold in 2030 if Algeria is given an adequate level of financial and technical support to reach this upper threshold.

The Dominican Republic

August 18, 2015

The DR has submitted its INDC, offering a 25% reduction in greenhouse gases from 2010 levels by 2030 contingent on adequate financial and technical support. The Dominican Republic also explicitly acknowledges five year commitment cycles to review country offers.

Democratic Republic of the Congo

August 18, 2015

The DRC has submitted its INDC, offering a conditional 17% reduction in greenhouse gases from 2000 levels by 2030 at a cost of $21.6 billion, of which roughly $9 billion will go to adaptation needs and $12.5 billion will go towards mitigation. The DRC will enact most of its reductions in the agricultural and forestry sectors.

Djibouti

August 14, 2015

Djibouti has submitted its INDC, offering 40% cuts in greenhouse gas emissions by 2030 from business as usual levels at a cost of $3.8 billion. Djibouti offers a further 20% reduction in emissions conditional upon receipt of an additional $1.6 billion.

Australia

August 11, 2015

Australia submitted its INDC setting a target to cut economy-wide greenhouse gases by between 26-28% from 2005 levels by the year 2030. In previous drafts Australia had set the base year for calculating its emissions cuts at 1995 and 2000 respectively before sliding it to 2005 in its official offer. By sliding the base year Australia has crafted a pledge that looks similar to the pledges of other developed countries, particularly the United States’ own INDC but quantifiably does not match the reductions put on the table by these counterparts. Australia does not discount the use of the land sector or carbon markets to reach its target.

Benin

August 7, 2015

In its INDC Benin calculates its emissions reduction targets in terms of megatonnes of CO2 equivalent avoided, which is different from the percentage cut in emissions from a business as usual (BAU) pathways that many other nations have used to represent their contributions. Benin offers to avoid emitting between 120-160 megatonnes of CO2 equivalent gases between the years 2020-2030. Of the lower threshold Benin would cut 5 megatonnes from the energy sector and the vast majority (115 megatonnes from the land use and forestry sector). Benin estimates that these reductions will cost a total of $30 billion, of which Benin will raise $2 billion from domestic sources.

Trinidad and Tobago

August 6, 2015

In its INDC, Trinidad and Tobago puts an unconditional pledge on the table to cut greenhouse gases from its transportation sector by 30% from business as usual by 2030 and a conditional pledge to cut GHGs from its top three emitting sectors: enegy generation, transportation and industry by 15% from BAU levels by 2030 contingent upon raising $2 billion in climate finance that will be primarily channeled through the Green Climate Fund.

Macedonia

August 7, 2015

In its official INDC, Macedonia offers to cut its carbon dioxide emissions by 30% from business as usual levels by 2030 (and by 36% under a higher ambition scenario contingent on supplemental finance). Macedonia has not discounted using carbon markets to reach its emissions targets.

Monaco

July 30, 2015

In its official INDC Monaco sets a target to reduce its emissions by 50% from 1990 levels by the year 2030. Furthermore, Monaco outlines two options for meeting its targets: the first is in a single 10 year period and the second is in two consecutive 5 year periods to prepare for whichever form is preferred by the terms of review in the Paris Agreement. Monoco states that it has not excluded making use of international carbon markets to make progress towards its emissions reduction targets. 

Kenya

July 24, 2015

Kenya’s official INDC equally prioritizes mitigation targets and adaptation plans to address the climate change-driven droughts and floods that cost the country approximately 3% of its GDP a year. The INDC pledges to reach a 30% cut in greenhouse gas emissions from business as usual levels in 2030. Other goals put forward in it’s contribution include: increasing forest cover to 10% of its total land area, mainstreaming climate change adaptation into its Medium Term Plans (MTPs), emphasizing climate smart agriculture (CSA) in line with a national CSA framework. Kenya announced that it order for it to meet these targets and sufficiently adapt to the destructive impacts of climate change it will need technical assistance and financial support in an estimated amount of $40 billion over the next 15 years.

Marshall Islands

July 21, 2015

The Marshall Islands is the first member of the Small Island Developing States (SIDS) to submit its INDC to theUNFCCC.  The Marshallese government is also second only to the United States in setting an emissions target for the year 2025 as opposed to 2030 in its post-2020 climate action plan. Specifically, the Marshall Islands has set an economy-wide target to reduce its emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) to 32% below 2010 levels by 2025 and, moreover, has set an indicative target of further reductions of its GHG emissions to 45% below 2010 levels by 2030. The Marshall Islands reached peak emissions in 2009 and have been reducing emissions ever since.  The country is on a track to nearly halve GHG emissions before 2030 and aims to attain net zero GHG emissions by 2050, or earlier if possible.  As one of the most climate change vulnerable nations in the world the Marshall Islands also included plans to enhance the country’s adaptive protocols and capacities by improving its existing Adaptation framework (see page 9 onward of the official INDC document).

Japan

July 17, 2015

Japan is the final member of the G7 group of nations to submit its INDC. In its climate offer, Japan has kept to a target of achieving 26% reductions in greenhouse gas emissions by 2030 compared to 2013 levels. Japan increased the cut in emissions it was proposing from an earlier figure of 20% reductions also from 2013 levels which leaked to the press earlier this year. However, there had been speculation that Japan would raise the ambition of its pledge further after a lengthy period of public consultation. Japan’s official submission puts to bed hopes that the country would put forward a stronger pledge equal to the commitment tabled by the U.S and the EU, two of its G7 counterparts.

New Zealand

July 7, 2015

In its official INDC, New Zealand commits to a 30% reduction in GHG emissions from 2005 levels by the year 2030.  New Zealand’s INDC contains a disclaimor that its offer remains provisional until a decision is reached on a set of accounting rules for land sector emissions and on rules governing accounting rules and access to global carbon markets.

Singapore

July 3, 2015

Singapore is the first ASEAN nation to submit its climate offer to the Paris Agreement pledging a 36% reduction in the carbon intensity of its emissions from 2005 levels by the year 2030.  Singapore has also adopted China’s language and has set a target to peak its emissions by around the year 2030.  Singapore also adaptation targets and aims to achieve its climate goals without the use of international market mechanisms although it will continue to study the efficacy of such mechanisms.

China

June 30, 2015

China’s official climate offer reaffirms the commitments it made in the historic climate agreement China forged with the United States last November, and builds upon its existing efforts to combat climate change and improve air quality and energy security. In it’s INDC China commits to:

  • Peak its total carbon dioxide emissions by 2030 or earlier (in a statement announcing the commitment, Prime Minister Li Keqiang said the country “will work hard to achieve the target at an even earlier date”)
  • Ramp up its non-fossil fuel consumption to comprise around 20 percent of its total energy mix by that same year
  • Lower carbon dioxide emissions per unit of GDP by 60 to 65 percent from 2005 levels
  • Increase forest stock volume by around 4.5 billion cubic meters from 2005 levels

These commitments move the country significantly away from its business as usual pathway. 

South Korea

June 30, 2015

South Korea has filed its INDC with the UNFCCC after increasing its 2030 emissions reduction target to 37 percent from business-as-usual (BAU) levels from its earlier plan for a 15-30 percent cut after internalizing feedback it received during a public comment period on the target.

Iceland

June 30, 2015

In its INDC, Iceland has set emissions reduction targets that align with the the EU’s and “aims to be part of a collective delivery by European countries to reach a target of 40% reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by 2030 compared to 1990 levels.” Iceland expresses a wish to continue its particpation in the EU emissions trading scheme and will set a target for emissions outside the EU-ETS. 

Serbia

June 30, 2015

In its official INDC, Sebia sets a goal to cut its total greenhouse gas emissions by 9.8% from 1990 levels by the year 2030.

Ethiopia

June 10, 2015

Ethiopia’s official INDC to the UNFCCC offers a 64% emissions reduction from business as usual by the year 2030. Ethiopia has offered to cut its 2010 emissions levels by 3% and channel new economic and energy growth through green growth going as far as to mention its intention to “leap frog to modern and energy efficient technologies in transport, industry and building sectors.” Ethiopia’s INDC also sets a long-term adaptation goal to mainstream adaptation planning into all of its development programs.

Morocco

June 6, 2015

Morocco submitted its official INDC to the UNFCCC. The country’s environment minister announced that the North African country would cut its greenhouse gas emissions by at least 13 percent by 2030. In addition to this base offer, the Moroccan government also put forth a conditional target of 32% based on the provision of new finance and enhanced support. Morocco follows a growing trend of putting forth a conditional or bifurcated offer, but Morocco breaks new ground by being the first nation to make fossil fuel subsidy reductions part of its plans for reaching its reduction target.

Canada

May 15, 2015

Canada released its intended climate offer pledging to reduce emissions by 30% below 2005 levels by the year 2030.  The offer translates into an annual reduction rate of 1.0% in emissions for the period from 2020 until 2030. The Harper government’s announcement also included plans to regulate emissions from three different sectors: methane releases from oil and gas extraction; natural-gas fired power plants, and the manufacture of chemicals and nitrogen fertilizers.

Andorra

April 30, 2015

Andorra submits its official INDC to the UNFCCC.  The country offers a 37% reduction of all greenhouse gases from the Business as Usual (BAU) pathway by the year 2030.  Andorra’s offer does not include carbon offsets pursued abroad. 

Liechtenstein

April 23, 2015

Liechtenstein offers a 40% reduction of all GHGs from 1990 levels by the year 2030.  The country will enact most of these reductions domestically but will also seek to reduce emissions outside of its borders.

Gabon

April 1, 2015

Gabon is the first African nation and second non-OECD country after Russia to submit its country offer or INDCto the UNFCCC.  In its offer Gabon pledges to cut its emissions by 50% from the business as usual (BAU) pathway.  Gabon’s offer also includes an adaptation component focusing on coastal resiliency needs that will be addressed under a national strategy that will be adopted by the Gabonese government.  Gabon addresses its finance needs in its offer, proposes the creation of a National Climate Fund to manage funding from both domestic and international public and private sources and announces that it will operationalize a connection to the Green Climate Fund (GCF) in the near future.  Gabon also announces that it will consider an extension of its commitment period beyond 2025 upon more in depth reviews.

Russia

March 31, 2015

Russia has officially filed its offer to the Paris climate talks with the UNFCCC.  In its INDC Russia has reaffirmed its previously indicated intention to limit anthropogenic greenhouse gases to 70-75% of its 1990 levels by the year 2030, as long as this target aligns with the maximum possible absorption capacity of its forests. This would amount to a 20-25% cut in emissions.  Russia has also indicated that it will make a final decision on its contribution to the climate agreement to be signed in Paris based on the contributions put forward by major global emitters and the outcome of the negotiation process underway throughout 2015.

United States of America

March 31, 2015

The US has officially submitted its intended nationally determined contribution or INDC to the UNFCCC well in advance of the next big climate talks in Paris this December.  The U.S. offer is consistent with the pledge it made in the joint announcement with China last November, to realize economy-wide emissions reductions 26-28 percent below 2005 levels by 2025 and to make best efforts to reduce its emissions by the upper threshold of 28%.  Furthermore, the US states that these reductions will put it on a pathway consistent with ramping up to deep, economy-wide emissions reductions of 80% or more by 2050.  The US INDC makes explicit that this target is part of a longer range, collective effort to transition to a low-carbon global economy as rapidly as possible. 

Mexico

March 27, 2015

Mexico announces its offer to the upcoming Paris climate agreement, becoming the first major developing country to commit to capping its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions within the UNFCCC submission process.  In an ambitious suite of actions, Mexico offers an unconditional cap on its GHG emissions by 2026 and a decline in total emissions after the peak year.  This pledge would lower Mexico’s emissions by an estimated 22 percent below the business as usual course.  Mexico has made a separate pledge to reduce black carbon emissions 51% by 2030.

Norway

March 27, 2015

Norway is the third party to the UNFCCC to submit its intended nationally determined contribution (or country offer) to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).  In its country offer Norway commits to cutting its carbon emissions by 40% from 1990 levels by the year 2030.  The offer goes further and expresses willingness to consider increasing the level of ambition beyond 40% reductions and sets an intended long-term goal (LTG) of attaining carbon neutrality by mid-century. 

European Union

March 6, 2015

The European Union (EU) submitted their intended nationally determined contribution (INDC), which calls for binding emissions reductions by 2030 of at least 40% from 1990 levels. The text also supports a global long-term goal (LTG) of 60% cuts below 2010 levels by 2050, and calls for accountability and transparency from all parties. The EU reductions would not include purchased emissions cuts from international markets. In submitting their INDC early, the 28 member states of the EU ask China, the US, and all G20 countries to submit their INDCs by the end of the first quarter of 2015.

Switzerland 

February 27, 2015

Switzerland was the first country to submit its intended nationally determined contribution (INDC) to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). In their INDC, Switzerland pledges to cut emissions 50% below 1990 levels by 2030, with at least 30% of emissions cuts coming from domestic actions and up to 20% coming from international projects. The INDC covers six sectors: energy; industrial processes and product use; land use; changes in land use and forestry; and waste. The Federal Council of Switzerland also noted a long-term objective to reduce annual per capita emissions to one or one-and-a-half tonnes.

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